Key takeaways and physical access control definition
- Physical access control systems restrict who can access a physical space.
- A PACS consists of a barrier (like a door or gate), a reader, credentials, a control panel, and a server.
- Physical access systems maintain security at buildings while providing a way for authorized people to easily gain entry.
- Credentials for a PACS range from keys and fobs to PIN codes and smartphones.
- The best physical access system is a video intercom like ButterflyMX.
For as long as we’ve had buildings, we’ve needed ways to control who can access them. This practice is known as physical access control — a broad term for any type of system that controls physical access to a space.
In this blog, we define what a physical access control system (PACS) is and outline its components, and help you choose the best one for your properties.
This post covers:
- What is a physical access control system?
- What is the best physical access control system?
- What are the components of physical access control?
- Physical vs. logical access control
- Physical access control models
- Physical access control systems FAQ
What is a physical access control system?
A physical access control system is a solution that uses a physical barrier to control who can enter a building, room, or space. So, a physical access control system (PACS) is any system that prevents unauthorized people from entering while providing a way for authorized people to easily bypass the barrier.
Controlling physical access ensures that people and assets in a building are safe. At all kinds of properties — multifamily, commercial, gated communities, and more — you can install a PACS to prevent theft, destruction of property, and break-ins. Also, a PACS may provide a way for a property’s visitors to request access.
Watch how ButterflyMX works:
What is the best physical access control system?
The best physical access control system is the ButterflyMX smart video intercom for multi-tenant properties. Not only can you increase profitability with a ButterflyMX video intercom, but you can also reduce operating costs with its many integration abilities.
This ultra-durable, modern PACS is powered by a highly-rated mobile app, empowering your residents to open the door from their phones. It features a bright 8” or 12” LED screen that increases visibility for visitors, and a 156-degree wide-angle camera that enhances two-way video calls.
What’s more, the intercom runs on the powerful, cloud-based ButterflyMX OS, secure cloud-based software, and 5GHz WiFi. This means you and your residents can remotely unlock the door and gates, view door entries, and manage access across the property. Further, the intercom is weatherproof and vandal-resistant.
ButterflyMX provides robust security features, boasts easy wireless installation, and eliminates clunky in-unit hardware. Plus, with over 20,000 five-star reviews and the highly-rated mobile app, you’re sure to give yourself and your residents a top-notch access experience.
What is the advantage of a mobile-based video intercom?
A good PACS that maximizes both security and convenience is rare. But with a smart video intercom, you’ll ensure the safety of your property while providing a simple way for tenants and their visitors to gain access.
Here’s why a mobile-based video intercom is the best way to control physical access:
- Smartphone-based property access: Authorized tenants can unlock the door or gate and manage guest access right from their phones — the height of convenience.
- No need for physical keys: Keys and fobs can be easily lost or stolen. But with a smart video intercom, tenants can gain access with just their phones or a PIN code.
- Camera for security: A video intercom’s camera maximizes security in multiple ways. First, it allows residents to visually confirm who’s requesting access. Second, it creates a visual audit trail of property entries for staff and tenants to review. And finally, it helps deter would-be criminals or trespassers.
- Integrations with other proptech devices: A smart video intercom can work in concert with other proptech like keypads, front desk stations, and vehicle readers to provide a unified access experience throughout your property.
What are the components of physical access control?
PACS offer more than physical barriers alone. They consist of several components that operate together to prevent unauthorized property access without hindering access for authorized people.
The five main components of a PACS are:
1. Physical access barriers
To control physical access to a building, you need a barrier. And there are two main types of barriers: physical barriers and authority barriers.
Physical barriers are exactly what they sound like – turnstiles, gates, and locked doors. To clarify, they’re literal barriers meant to keep unauthorized people out. In order to get past a physical barrier, users must have a physical access control device like a key, fob, or PIN code.
Physical barriers may work in combination with authority barriers to block people from entering your building without permission.
Authority barriers are the people who check the credentials of anyone seeking access. An authority barrier could be a security guard, a staff member, or even residents themselves.
In most cases, an authority barrier also requires a physical barrier.
2. Identifying credentials
Identification credentials tell the system who is trying to gain entry. These credentials come in many forms.
Fobs and key cards are among the most common credentials. However, PIN codes, QR codes, and smartphones can also be used as credentials.
Users scan or enter their credentials at your property’s physical barrier in order to gain access.
A reader is the device installed at an entryway where users scan their credentials. The reader “reads” the credential, then sends that data to the system’s control panel to determine if the person is authorized to enter.
If your PACS has visitor management features, it also offers a way for guests without any identifying credentials to request access. Through the reader, they can request access by calling a tenant or staff member.
4. Control panel
The control panel is essentially the brain of the PACS. To put it another way, it’s the component that actually verifies whether an access credential is authentic.
If the credential is valid, the control panel instructs the physical access barrier to unlock or open.
The access control server is a storage system that keeps a detailed record of every entry into your property. Conveniently, it also stores user data and each user’s access privileges. You can store information in either an onsite server or in the cloud.
Cloud-based physical access control has many benefits, like empowering your staff to edit access permissions from any laptop or computer.
Additionally, you’ll want to ensure that your server is well-maintained and up-to-date to maximize security.
Physical vs. logical access control
Physical access control is the practice of blocking physical access to a building or space. It requires users to have a physical credential, like a key or fob, to gain entry. Although this is occasionally an adequate security measure, it’s not always enough.
This is where logical access control comes in.
Logical access control takes physical access control to the next level: requiring identity authorization to restrict property access.
In other words, logical access control requires you to use something you know to gain entry, like a PIN code or password. In contrast, a system that relies strictly on physical access requires you to use a physical credential, like a key or fob.
However, some systems require both logical and physical credentials.
Blending logical & physical access control
Rather than relying on just the physical component, many high-security PACS use a multi-factor authentication method to prevent entry using a stolen credential.
Modern high-tech PACS combine physical barriers and identifying credentials to ensure each person who enters your property is authorized.
The District of Columbia police department reports that most intruders give up after 60 seconds of an attempted break-in. So, if your system has logical access controls in place, your chances of intruders following through with attempted break-ins falls significantly. With this in mind, you should choose a PACS that employs multi-factor authentication if security is a high priority.
See the different ways to open the door with ButterflyMX:
Physical access control models
While physical access is a necessity for every property, every property is unique and might benefit from administering its access systems differently.
Depending on your property’s security needs, you might benefit from these physical access control frameworks:
What are the 3 types of access control?
In a rule-based access control system, residents can access certain spaces depending on the rules that administrators set. You can set these rules to maximize security at your property while keeping access convenient for residents.
You might use rules that restrict access depending on:
- Time of day
- If a space is reserved or not
- What kind of room the resident wants access to
- If the resident has paid to use an amenity space
A role-based access system manages access with a series of roles that you create and assign as needed. First, you create roles with different access permissions. Then, as people move into or start working in your building, you can assign them the role they need.
Examples of roles include:
- Property manager
- Maintenance worker
- Front desk staff
Attribute-based access uses real-time monitoring software to grant residents have access based on attributes.
Examples of attributes include:
- Job description
- Time of day
You might be wondering about the difference between attribute-based and role- or rule-based access. Here’s what it boils down to: You have to manually assign roles and rules. Meanwhile, people inherently have attributes.
For example, let’s say a person gets promoted to manager and gets access to more spaces. In a role-based system, you’d have to manually change their permissions. In an attribute-based system, physical access control software would keep track of that role change and automatically change their permissions without human intervention.
Physical access control systems FAQ
Here is the answer to your most frequently asked question about physical access control:
What are the types of physical access control systems?
Physical access control has existed for as long as we’ve had spaces that need security measures. So, there are many variations on PACS that have evolved over time.
Here are some of the most common types of access control in physical security:
- Security guards: This is possibly the oldest form of physical access control! Nowadays, security guards often work in tandem with other components of PACS.
- Lock and keys: As a rudimentary form of physical access control, a simple lock and key system gets the job done but isn’t the most secure solution.
- Key cards and fobs: Key card and fob systems are among the most basic types of electronic access control. They’re usually powered by RFID technology. However, key cards and fobs can be lost or stolen, and they don’t allow visitors to request access.
- Keypads: A keypad is an access control system that requires tenants to use PIN code credentials to gain access.
- Intercoms: This is the most well-rounded type of PACS. In fact, intercoms allow you to keep your entryways locked without hindering access for residents or guests. The best intercoms have a camera to enable video calling and take a photo of each entry event.